# Chapter 5: Ordination of samples by multi-dimensional scaling (MDS)

#### 5.1 Other ordination methods

Principal Co-ordinates Analysis The two main weaknesses of PCA, identified at the end of Chapter ...

#### 5.2 Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS)

The method of non-metric MDS was introduced by and , for application to problems in psychology; ...

#### 5.3 Diagnostics: Adequacy of MDS representation

Is the stress value small? By definition, stress reduces with increasing dimensionality of the ...

#### 5.4 EXAMPLE: Dosing experiment, Solbergstrand

The nematode abundance data from the dosing experiment {D} at the GEEP Oslo Workshop was previous...

#### 5.5 Example: Celtic Sea zooplankton

In situations where the samples are strongly grouped, as in Figs. 5.4 and 5.5, both clustering an...

#### 5.6 Example: Amoco-Cadiz oil spill, Morlaix

Benthic macrofaunal abundances of 251 species were sampled by at 21 times between April 1977 and ...

#### 5.7 MDS strengths and weaknesses

MDS strengths MDS is simple in concept. The numerical algorithm is undeniably complex, but it ...

#### 5.8 Further nMDS/mMDS developments

Higher dimensional solutions MDS solutions can be sought in higher dimensions and we noted previo...

#### 5.9 Example: Okura estuary macrofauna

describe macrofauna samples from the Okura estuary {O}, on the northern fringes of urban Aucklan...

#### 5.10 Example: Messolongi lagoon diatoms

sampled 17 lagoons in E Central Greece for diatom communities (193 species), and also recorded a...

#### 5.11 Recommendations

Non-metric MDS can be recommended as the best general ordination technique available (e.g. ). Im...